In many cases, entire families worked in a factory, including young children. Poor families could not survive if every member of the family did not work. Although they often faced the same dangers as men on the job, women and children were paid less because they were considered weaker than men.
Many workers felt helpless. There was a constant fear of job loss. Unskilled workers were easy to replace. Immigrants, women, children, and African Americans could easily replace a white male worker. This caused division among workers. If workers could unify, they might be able to increase wages, reduce hours, and improve job safety. However, discrimination against blacks and immigrants often made unity difficult.
Newberry Mills (S.C.) Noon hour. All are working here. Witness, Sara R. Hine. Location: Newberry, South Carolina.